Difference between revisions of "Creative Commons"

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'''Creative Commons''' ('''CC''') is a [[non-profit organization]] devoted to expanding the range of [[creativity|creative]] works available for others to build upon legally and to share.<ref>[http://wiki.creativecommons.org/FAQ (Creative Commons FAQ)]</ref> The organization has released several copyright licenses known as [[Creative Commons licenses]]. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they [[waive]] for the benefit of recipients or other creators.
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'''Creative Commons''' ('''CC''') is a [[non-profit organization]] devoted to expanding the range of [[creativity|creative]] works available for others to build upon legally and to share.<ref>[http://wiki.creativecommons.org/FAQ (Creative Commons FAQ)]</ref> The organization has released several copyright licenses known as [[Creative Commons licenses]]. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they [[waive]] for the benefit of recipients or other creators.
  
==Aim and influence==
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== Aim and influence ==
 
Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the [[copyleft]] movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer [[public domain]] by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" [[copyright]], dubbed "some rights reserved."<ref>{{cite web | first= Sharee L. | last= Broussard| title= The copyleft movement: creative commons licensing | format= | publisher= Communication Research Trends | url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7081/is_3_26/ai_n28457434?tag=content;col1 | date=September 2007}}</ref> David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of [[intellectual property]] and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "[[commons]]" in the "[[information age]]". Beyond that Creative Commons has provided "institutional, practical and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely".<ref>[http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/free_issues/issue_05/commons_without_commonality/ Berry & Moss 2005]</ref>  
 
Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the [[copyleft]] movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer [[public domain]] by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" [[copyright]], dubbed "some rights reserved."<ref>{{cite web | first= Sharee L. | last= Broussard| title= The copyleft movement: creative commons licensing | format= | publisher= Communication Research Trends | url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7081/is_3_26/ai_n28457434?tag=content;col1 | date=September 2007}}</ref> David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of [[intellectual property]] and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "[[commons]]" in the "[[information age]]". Beyond that Creative Commons has provided "institutional, practical and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely".<ref>[http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/free_issues/issue_05/commons_without_commonality/ Berry & Moss 2005]</ref>  
  
Creative Commons works to counter what the organization considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive [[permission culture]]. According to [[Lawrence Lessig]], founder of Creative Commons, it is "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past".<ref>{{cite book | first=Lawrence | last=Lessig |url=http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf |year=2004 | title=Free Culture | publisher=Penguin Press | location=New York | pages=8 |format=PDF}}</ref> Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions.<ref>{{cite journal | author=Ermert, Monika | title=Germany debuts Creative Commons | journal=Register | year=2004| url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/06/15/german_creative_commons/ | doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0000009 | volume=1 | pages=e9 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web | author=Lessig, Lawrence| year=2006| title=Lawrence Lessig on Creative Commons and the Remix Culture | format=mp3 | work=Talking with Talis | url=http://talk.talis.com/archives/2006/01/lawrence_lessig.html | accessdate=2006-04-07}}</ref>
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Creative Commons works to counter what the organization considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive [[permission culture]]. According to [[Lawrence Lessig]], founder of Creative Commons, it is "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past".<ref>{{cite book | first=Lawrence | last=Lessig |url=http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf |year=2004 | title=Free Culture | publisher=Penguin Press | location=New York | pages=8 |format=PDF}}</ref> Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions.<ref>{{cite journal | author=Ermert, Monika | title=Germany debuts Creative Commons | journal=Register | year=2004| url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/06/15/german_creative_commons/ | doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0000009 | volume=1 | pages=e9 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web | author=Lessig, Lawrence| year=2006| title=Lawrence Lessig on Creative Commons and the Remix Culture | format=mp3 | work=Talking with Talis | url=http://talk.talis.com/archives/2006/01/lawrence_lessig.html | accessdate=2006-04-07}}</ref>
  
==Creative Commons governance==
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== Creative Commons governance ==
 
The current CEO of Creative Commons is [[Joi Ito]]. [[Mike Linksvayer]] is vice president, [[John Wilbanks]] is vice president of science, and Ahrash Bissell is the Executive Director of ccLearn.
 
The current CEO of Creative Commons is [[Joi Ito]]. [[Mike Linksvayer]] is vice president, [[John Wilbanks]] is vice president of science, and Ahrash Bissell is the Executive Director of ccLearn.
  
===Board===
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=== Board ===
 
The current Creative Commons Board includes: [[Hal Abelson]], [[James Boyle (academic)|James Boyle]] (Chair), [[Michael W. Carroll]], [[Davis Guggenheim]], [[Joi Ito]], [[Lawrence Lessig]], Laurie Racine, Eric Saltzman, Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, [[Jimmy Wales]], and [[Esther Wojcicki]].<ref name="autogenerated1">[http://creativecommons.org/about/people/ People - Creative Commons<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>  
 
The current Creative Commons Board includes: [[Hal Abelson]], [[James Boyle (academic)|James Boyle]] (Chair), [[Michael W. Carroll]], [[Davis Guggenheim]], [[Joi Ito]], [[Lawrence Lessig]], Laurie Racine, Eric Saltzman, Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, [[Jimmy Wales]], and [[Esther Wojcicki]].<ref name="autogenerated1">[http://creativecommons.org/about/people/ People - Creative Commons<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>  
  
===Technical Advisory Board===
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=== Technical Advisory Board ===
The Technical Advisory Board includes five members: Hal Abelson, Ben Adida, Barbara Fox, Don McGovern and [[Eric Miller]]. Hal Abelson also serves on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />  
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The Technical Advisory Board includes five members: Hal Abelson, Ben Adida, Barbara Fox, Don McGovern and [[Eric Miller]]. Hal Abelson also serves on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />  
  
===Audit Committee===
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=== Audit Committee ===
Creative Commons also has an Audit Committee, with two members: Molly Shaffer Van Houweling and Lawrence Lessig. Both serve on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
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Creative Commons also has an Audit Committee, with two members: Molly Shaffer Van Houweling and Lawrence Lessig. Both serve on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
  
==Types of Creative Commons Licenses==
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== Types of Creative Commons Licenses ==
 
Creative Commons licenses contain four major permissions:
 
Creative Commons licenses contain four major permissions:
  
*'''Attribution''' (by) requires users to attribute a work's original author. All Creative Commons licenses contain this option, but some now-deprecated licenses did not contain this component.
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* '''Attribution''' (by) requires users to attribute a work's original author. All Creative Commons licenses contain this option, but some now-deprecated licenses did not contain this component.
*Authors can either not restrict modification, or use '''Share-alike''' (sa), which is a [[copyleft]] requirement that requires that any [[derivative work|derived works]] be licensed under the same license, or '''No derivatives''' (nd), which requires that the work not be modified.
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* Authors can either not restrict modification, or use '''Share-alike''' (sa), which is a [[copyleft]] requirement that requires that any [[derivative work|derived works]] be licensed under the same license, or '''No derivatives''' (nd), which requires that the work not be modified.
*'''Non-commercial''' (nc) requires that the work not be used for commercial purposes.
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* '''Non-commercial''' (nc) requires that the work not be used for commercial purposes.
  
 
As of the current versions, all Creative Commons licenses allow the "core right" to redistribute a work for non-commercial purposes without modification. The ''Non-commercial'' and ''No derivatives'' options will make a work [[Free content|non-free]].
 
As of the current versions, all Creative Commons licenses allow the "core right" to redistribute a work for non-commercial purposes without modification. The ''Non-commercial'' and ''No derivatives'' options will make a work [[Free content|non-free]].
  
==Legal test case==
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== Legal test case ==
 
A [[Creative Commons license]] was first tested in court in early 2006, when podcaster [[Adam Curry]] sued a Dutch tabloid who published photos without permission from his Flickr page. The photos were licensed under the Creative Commons Non-Commercial license. While the verdict was in favour of Curry, the tabloid avoided having to pay restitution to him as long as they did not repeat the offense. An analysis of the decision states, "The Dutch Court’s decision is especially noteworthy because it confirms that the conditions of a Creative Commons license automatically apply to the content licensed under it, and bind users of such content even without expressly agreeing to, or having knowledge of, the conditions of the license."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20060316052623594|title=Creative Commons License Upheld by Dutch Court|work=[[Groklaw]]|date=2006-03-16|accessdate=2006-09-02}}</ref>
 
A [[Creative Commons license]] was first tested in court in early 2006, when podcaster [[Adam Curry]] sued a Dutch tabloid who published photos without permission from his Flickr page. The photos were licensed under the Creative Commons Non-Commercial license. While the verdict was in favour of Curry, the tabloid avoided having to pay restitution to him as long as they did not repeat the offense. An analysis of the decision states, "The Dutch Court’s decision is especially noteworthy because it confirms that the conditions of a Creative Commons license automatically apply to the content licensed under it, and bind users of such content even without expressly agreeing to, or having knowledge of, the conditions of the license."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20060316052623594|title=Creative Commons License Upheld by Dutch Court|work=[[Groklaw]]|date=2006-03-16|accessdate=2006-09-02}}</ref>
  
==Creative Commons International==
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== Creative Commons International ==
 
The original non-localized Creative Commons licenses were written with the U.S. legal system in mind, so the wording could be incompatible within different local legislations and render the licenses unenforceable in various [[jurisdictions]]. To address this issue, [[Creative Commons International]] has started to port the various licenses to accommodate local copyright and private law. As of December 2008, there are 50 jurisdiction-specific licenses, with 8 other jurisdictions in drafting process, and more countries joining the worldwide project.<ref>[http://creativecommons.org/worldwide project]</ref>
 
The original non-localized Creative Commons licenses were written with the U.S. legal system in mind, so the wording could be incompatible within different local legislations and render the licenses unenforceable in various [[jurisdictions]]. To address this issue, [[Creative Commons International]] has started to port the various licenses to accommodate local copyright and private law. As of December 2008, there are 50 jurisdiction-specific licenses, with 8 other jurisdictions in drafting process, and more countries joining the worldwide project.<ref>[http://creativecommons.org/worldwide project]</ref>
  
==Usage of Creative Commons licenses==
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== Usage of Creative Commons licenses ==
 
Creative Commons is maintaining a content directory [[wiki]] of organizations and projects using Creative Commons licenses.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Content_Directories|title=Content Directories|publisher=creativecommons.org|accessdate=2009-04-24}}</ref> On its website CC also provides case studies of projects using CC licenses across the world.<ref>[http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Casestudies Creative Commons Case Studies]</ref> CC licensed content can also be accessed through a number of content directories and search engines (see [[CC licensed content directories]]).
 
Creative Commons is maintaining a content directory [[wiki]] of organizations and projects using Creative Commons licenses.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Content_Directories|title=Content Directories|publisher=creativecommons.org|accessdate=2009-04-24}}</ref> On its website CC also provides case studies of projects using CC licenses across the world.<ref>[http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Casestudies Creative Commons Case Studies]</ref> CC licensed content can also be accessed through a number of content directories and search engines (see [[CC licensed content directories]]).
  
 
On January 13, 2009, some broadcasting content from Al Jazeera on the [[2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict]] was released as creative commons.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/12049|title= Al Jazeera Launches Creative Commons Repository |last=Benenson|first=Fred |date=2009-01-13|publisher=creativecommons.org|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://creativecommons.org/press-releases/entry/12166|title=Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage Under Creative Commons License|last=Steuer|first=Eric |date=2009-01-13|publisher=creativecommons.org|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/01/11/technology/jazeera.php|title=Al Jazeera provides an inside look at Gaza conflict|last=Cohen|first=Noam |date=2009-01-11|publisher=[[Herald Tribune]]|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://cc.aljazeera.net/content/launch-press-release|title=Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage under Creative Commons License|publisher=Al Jazeera Creative Commons Repository|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.paidcontent.co.uk/entry/419-al-jazeera-offers-creative-commons-video-lessig-lends-backing/|title=Al Jazeera Offers Creative Commons Video, Lessig Lends Backing|last=Andrews|first=Robert |date=2009-11-14|publisher=paidcontent.co.uk|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://joi.ito.com/weblog/2009/01/14/al-jazeera-laun.html|title=Al Jazeera Launches Creative Commons Repository |last=Ito|first=Joi |date=2009-01-14|publisher=joi.ito.com|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref>
 
On January 13, 2009, some broadcasting content from Al Jazeera on the [[2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict]] was released as creative commons.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/12049|title= Al Jazeera Launches Creative Commons Repository |last=Benenson|first=Fred |date=2009-01-13|publisher=creativecommons.org|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://creativecommons.org/press-releases/entry/12166|title=Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage Under Creative Commons License|last=Steuer|first=Eric |date=2009-01-13|publisher=creativecommons.org|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/01/11/technology/jazeera.php|title=Al Jazeera provides an inside look at Gaza conflict|last=Cohen|first=Noam |date=2009-01-11|publisher=[[Herald Tribune]]|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://cc.aljazeera.net/content/launch-press-release|title=Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage under Creative Commons License|publisher=Al Jazeera Creative Commons Repository|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.paidcontent.co.uk/entry/419-al-jazeera-offers-creative-commons-video-lessig-lends-backing/|title=Al Jazeera Offers Creative Commons Video, Lessig Lends Backing|last=Andrews|first=Robert |date=2009-11-14|publisher=paidcontent.co.uk|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://joi.ito.com/weblog/2009/01/14/al-jazeera-laun.html|title=Al Jazeera Launches Creative Commons Repository |last=Ito|first=Joi |date=2009-01-14|publisher=joi.ito.com|accessdate=2009-01-19}}</ref>
  
==Criticism==
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== Criticism ==
 
Matteo Pasquinelli (2008) describes two fronts of criticism: "those who claim the institution of a real commonality against Creative Commons restrictions (non-commercial, share-alike, etc.)<!-- share-alike also? so what does he want - a public-domain-like-commons? --> and those who point out Creative Commons complicity with global capitalism".<!-- is this because people are allowed to make money using !nc cc-licensed work? also, in what way does he consider this bad? --> Pasquinelli specifically criticises Creative Commons for not establishing "productive commons".<!-- what does he mean by that? clearly he can't mean ‘productive’ in the usual sense of the word... --><ref>Pasquinelli, Matteo. [http://www.rekombinant.org/animal-spirits "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons"], Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008</ref>
 
Matteo Pasquinelli (2008) describes two fronts of criticism: "those who claim the institution of a real commonality against Creative Commons restrictions (non-commercial, share-alike, etc.)<!-- share-alike also? so what does he want - a public-domain-like-commons? --> and those who point out Creative Commons complicity with global capitalism".<!-- is this because people are allowed to make money using !nc cc-licensed work? also, in what way does he consider this bad? --> Pasquinelli specifically criticises Creative Commons for not establishing "productive commons".<!-- what does he mean by that? clearly he can't mean ‘productive’ in the usual sense of the word... --><ref>Pasquinelli, Matteo. [http://www.rekombinant.org/animal-spirits "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons"], Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008</ref>
  
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Some within the [[copyleft]] movement argue that only the Attribution-ShareAlike license is actually a true copyleft license <ref>[http://www.robmyers.org/weblog/2008/02/24/noncommercial-sharealike-is-not-copyleft/]</ref> and that there is no standard of freedom between Creative Commons licenses (as there is, for example, within the [[free software]] and [[open source]] movements). <ref>Benjamin Mako Hill, [http://mako.cc/writing/toward_a_standard_of_freedom.html Towards a Standard of Freedom]</ref> An effort within the movement to define a standard of freedom has resulted in the Definition of Free Cultural Works.<ref>[Definition of Free Cultural Works http://freedomdefined.org/]</ref> In February 2008, Creative Commons recognized the definition and added an "Approved for Free Cultural Works" badge to its two Creative Commons licenses which comply -- Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike. <ref>[http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/8051 Approved for Free Cultural Works ]</ref>
 
Some within the [[copyleft]] movement argue that only the Attribution-ShareAlike license is actually a true copyleft license <ref>[http://www.robmyers.org/weblog/2008/02/24/noncommercial-sharealike-is-not-copyleft/]</ref> and that there is no standard of freedom between Creative Commons licenses (as there is, for example, within the [[free software]] and [[open source]] movements). <ref>Benjamin Mako Hill, [http://mako.cc/writing/toward_a_standard_of_freedom.html Towards a Standard of Freedom]</ref> An effort within the movement to define a standard of freedom has resulted in the Definition of Free Cultural Works.<ref>[Definition of Free Cultural Works http://freedomdefined.org/]</ref> In February 2008, Creative Commons recognized the definition and added an "Approved for Free Cultural Works" badge to its two Creative Commons licenses which comply -- Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike. <ref>[http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/8051 Approved for Free Cultural Works ]</ref>
  
==See also==
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== See also ==
*[[Copyleft]]
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* [[Copyleft]]
*[[Creative Commons licenses]]
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* [[Creative Commons licenses]]
*[[Digital freedom]]
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* [[Digital freedom]]
*FairShare
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* FairShare
*[[Free content]]
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* [[Free content]]
*[[Free software]]
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* [[Free software]]
*[[Gratis versus libre]]
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* [[Gratis versus libre]]
*[[List of works available under a Creative Commons License]]
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* [[List of works available under a Creative Commons License]]
*[[Open content]]
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* [[Open content]]
*[[Open source]]
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* [[Open source]]
*[[Public domain]]
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* [[Public domain]]
*[[Science Commons]]
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* [[Science Commons]]
*[[Share-alike]]
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* [[Share-alike]]
*[[commons:Category:Commons resources|Category:Commons resources]]
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* [[commons:Category:Commons resources|Category:Commons resources]]
  
  
  
==References==
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== References ==
 
<div class="references-small">
 
<div class="references-small">
*Ardito, Stephanie C. "Public-Domain Advocacy Flourishes." ''Information Today'' 20, no. 7 (2003): 17,19.
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* Ardito, Stephanie C. "Public-Domain Advocacy Flourishes." ''Information Today'' 20, no. 7 (2003): 17,19.
*Asschenfeldt, Christiane. "[http://agenda.cern.ch/askArchive.php?base=agenda&categ=a035925&id=a035925s5t6/ Copyright and Licensing Issues—The International Commons.]" In ''CERN Workshop Series on Innovations in Scholarly Communication: Implementing the Benefits of OAI (OAI3), [[12 February]]-[[14 February]] [[2004]] at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland''. Geneva: CERN, 2004. (video)
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* Asschenfeldt, Christiane. "[http://agenda.cern.ch/askArchive.php?base=agenda&categ=a035925&id=a035925s5t6/ Copyright and Licensing Issues—The International Commons.]" In ''CERN Workshop Series on Innovations in Scholarly Communication: Implementing the Benefits of OAI (OAI3), [[12 February]]-[[14 February]] [[2004]] at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland''. Geneva: CERN, 2004. (video)
*Brown, Glenn Otis. "[http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=7475 Academic Digital Rights: A Walk on the Creative Commons.]" ''Syllabus Magazine'' (April 2003).  
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* Brown, Glenn Otis. "[http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=7475 Academic Digital Rights: A Walk on the Creative Commons.]" ''Syllabus Magazine'' (April 2003).  
*———. "[http://www.plosbiology.org/plosonline/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0000009 Out of the Way: How the Next Copyright Revolution Can Help the Next Scientific Revolution.]" ''PLoS Biology'' 1, no. 1 (2003): 30-31.  
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* ———. "[http://www.plosbiology.org/plosonline/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0000009 Out of the Way: How the Next Copyright Revolution Can Help the Next Scientific Revolution.]" ''PLoS Biology'' 1, no. 1 (2003): 30-31.  
*Chillingworth, Mark. "[http://www.iwr.co.uk/iwreview/1155821/ Creative Commons Attracts BBC's Attention.]" ''Information World Review'', [[11 June]] [[2004]].  
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* Chillingworth, Mark. "[http://www.iwr.co.uk/iwreview/1155821/ Creative Commons Attracts BBC's Attention.]" ''Information World Review'', [[11 June]] [[2004]].  
*Conhaim, Wallys W. "[http://www.infotoday.com/newsbreaks/nb020603-2.htm Creative Commons Nurtures the Public Domain.]" ''Information Today'' 19, no. 7 (2002): 52, 54.  
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* Conhaim, Wallys W. "[http://www.infotoday.com/newsbreaks/nb020603-2.htm Creative Commons Nurtures the Public Domain.]" ''Information Today'' 19, no. 7 (2002): 52, 54.  
*"[http://xml.coverpages.org/ni2004-04-28-a.html Delivering Classics Resources with TEI-XML, Open Source, and Creative Commons Licenses.]" ''Cover Pages'', [[28 April]] [[2004]].  
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* "[http://xml.coverpages.org/ni2004-04-28-a.html Delivering Classics Resources with TEI-XML, Open Source, and Creative Commons Licenses.]" ''Cover Pages'', [[28 April]] [[2004]].  
*Denison, D.C. "For Creators, An Argument for Alienable Rights." ''Boston Globe'', [[22 December]] [[2002]], E2.  
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* Denison, D.C. "For Creators, An Argument for Alienable Rights." ''Boston Globe'', [[22 December]] [[2002]], E2.  
*Ermert, Monika. "[http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/06/15/german_creative_commons/ Germany Debuts Creative Commons.]" ''The Register'', [[15 June]] [[2004]].  
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* Ermert, Monika. "[http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/06/15/german_creative_commons/ Germany Debuts Creative Commons.]" ''The Register'', [[15 June]] [[2004]].  
*Fitzgerald, Brian, and Ian Oi. "[http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00000122/ Free Culture: Cultivating the Creative Commons.]" (2004).  
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* Fitzgerald, Brian, and Ian Oi. "[http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00000122/ Free Culture: Cultivating the Creative Commons.]" (2004).  
*Johnstone, Sally M. "Sharing Educational Materials Without Losing Rights." ''Change'' 35, no. 6 (2003): 49-51.  
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* Johnstone, Sally M. "Sharing Educational Materials Without Losing Rights." ''Change'' 35, no. 6 (2003): 49-51.  
 
* Pasquinelli, Matteo. [http://www.rekombinant.org/mat "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons"], Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-90-5662-663-1
 
* Pasquinelli, Matteo. [http://www.rekombinant.org/mat "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons"], Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-90-5662-663-1
*Plotkin, Hal. "[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/gate/archive/2002/02/11/creatcom.DTL All Hail Creative Commons: Stanford Professor and Author Lawrence Lessig Plans a Legal Insurrection.]" ''SFGate.com'', [[11 February]] [[2002]].  
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* Plotkin, Hal. "[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/gate/archive/2002/02/11/creatcom.DTL All Hail Creative Commons: Stanford Professor and Author Lawrence Lessig Plans a Legal Insurrection.]" ''SFGate.com'', [[11 February]] [[2002]].  
*Schloman, Barbara F. "[http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/infocol/info_12.htm Creative Commons: An Opportunity to Extend the Public Domain.]" ''Online Journal of Issues in Nursing'', [[13 October]] [[2003]].  
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* Schloman, Barbara F. "[http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/infocol/info_12.htm Creative Commons: An Opportunity to Extend the Public Domain.]" ''Online Journal of Issues in Nursing'', [[13 October]] [[2003]].  
*Stix, Gary. "[http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&colID=7&articleID=000C2691-4F88-1E40-89E0809EC588EEDF Some Rights Reserved.]" ''Scientific American'' 288, no. 3 (2003): 46.  
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* Stix, Gary. "[http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&colID=7&articleID=000C2691-4F88-1E40-89E0809EC588EEDF Some Rights Reserved.]" ''Scientific American'' 288, no. 3 (2003): 46.  
*Weitzman, Jonathan B., and Lawrence Lessig. "[http://www.biomedcentral.com/openaccess/archive/?page=features&issue=16 Open Access and Creative Common Sense.]" ''Open Access Now'', [[10 May]] [[2004]].</div>
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* Weitzman, Jonathan B., and Lawrence Lessig. "[http://www.biomedcentral.com/openaccess/archive/?page=features&issue=16 Open Access and Creative Common Sense.]" ''Open Access Now'', [[10 May]] [[2004]].</div>
  
==External links==
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== External links ==
  
*[http://creativecommons.org/ Creative Commons home page]
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* [http://creativecommons.org/ Creative Commons home page]
*[http://wiki.creativecommons.org Creative Commons wiki]
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* [http://wiki.creativecommons.org Creative Commons wiki]
*[http://mirrors.creativecommons.org/ Short Flash animation describing Creative Commons]
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* [http://mirrors.creativecommons.org/ Short Flash animation describing Creative Commons]
*[http://www.cbc.ca/thehour/video.php?id=975 Creative Commons Explained: Lawrence Lessig] on ''[[The Hour]]'' with [[George Stroumboulopoulos]]
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* [http://www.cbc.ca/thehour/video.php?id=975 Creative Commons Explained: Lawrence Lessig] on ''[[The Hour]]'' with [[George Stroumboulopoulos]]
  
[[Category:Links]][[Category:Other wikis]]
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Revision as of 14:44, 12 March 2013

Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.<ref>(Creative Commons FAQ)</ref> The organization has released several copyright licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators.

Aim and influence

Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, dubbed "some rights reserved."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that Creative Commons has provided "institutional, practical and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely".<ref>Berry & Moss 2005</ref>

Creative Commons works to counter what the organization considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture. According to Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, it is "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past".<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Creative Commons governance

The current CEO of Creative Commons is Joi Ito. Mike Linksvayer is vice president, John Wilbanks is vice president of science, and Ahrash Bissell is the Executive Director of ccLearn.

Board

The current Creative Commons Board includes: Hal Abelson, James Boyle (Chair), Michael W. Carroll, Davis Guggenheim, Joi Ito, Lawrence Lessig, Laurie Racine, Eric Saltzman, Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Jimmy Wales, and Esther Wojcicki.<ref name="autogenerated1">People - Creative Commons</ref>

Technical Advisory Board

The Technical Advisory Board includes five members: Hal Abelson, Ben Adida, Barbara Fox, Don McGovern and Eric Miller. Hal Abelson also serves on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />

Audit Committee

Creative Commons also has an Audit Committee, with two members: Molly Shaffer Van Houweling and Lawrence Lessig. Both serve on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />

Types of Creative Commons Licenses

Creative Commons licenses contain four major permissions:

  • Attribution (by) requires users to attribute a work's original author. All Creative Commons licenses contain this option, but some now-deprecated licenses did not contain this component.
  • Authors can either not restrict modification, or use Share-alike (sa), which is a copyleft requirement that requires that any derived works be licensed under the same license, or No derivatives (nd), which requires that the work not be modified.
  • Non-commercial (nc) requires that the work not be used for commercial purposes.

As of the current versions, all Creative Commons licenses allow the "core right" to redistribute a work for non-commercial purposes without modification. The Non-commercial and No derivatives options will make a work non-free.

Legal test case

A Creative Commons license was first tested in court in early 2006, when podcaster Adam Curry sued a Dutch tabloid who published photos without permission from his Flickr page. The photos were licensed under the Creative Commons Non-Commercial license. While the verdict was in favour of Curry, the tabloid avoided having to pay restitution to him as long as they did not repeat the offense. An analysis of the decision states, "The Dutch Court’s decision is especially noteworthy because it confirms that the conditions of a Creative Commons license automatically apply to the content licensed under it, and bind users of such content even without expressly agreeing to, or having knowledge of, the conditions of the license."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Creative Commons International

The original non-localized Creative Commons licenses were written with the U.S. legal system in mind, so the wording could be incompatible within different local legislations and render the licenses unenforceable in various jurisdictions. To address this issue, Creative Commons International has started to port the various licenses to accommodate local copyright and private law. As of December 2008, there are 50 jurisdiction-specific licenses, with 8 other jurisdictions in drafting process, and more countries joining the worldwide project.<ref>project</ref>

Usage of Creative Commons licenses

Creative Commons is maintaining a content directory wiki of organizations and projects using Creative Commons licenses.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> On its website CC also provides case studies of projects using CC licenses across the world.<ref>Creative Commons Case Studies</ref> CC licensed content can also be accessed through a number of content directories and search engines (see CC licensed content directories).

On January 13, 2009, some broadcasting content from Al Jazeera on the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict was released as creative commons.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Criticism

Matteo Pasquinelli (2008) describes two fronts of criticism: "those who claim the institution of a real commonality against Creative Commons restrictions (non-commercial, share-alike, etc.) and those who point out Creative Commons complicity with global capitalism". Pasquinelli specifically criticises Creative Commons for not establishing "productive commons".<ref>Pasquinelli, Matteo. "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons", Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008</ref>

Critics have also argued that Creative Commons worsens license proliferation, by providing multiple licenses that are incompatible.<ref>[1]</ref> Most notably 'attribution-sharealike' and 'attribution-noncommercial-sharealike' are incompatible, meaning that works under these licenses cannot be combined in a derivative work without obtaining permission from the license-holder.<ref>[2]</ref><ref></ref> Pro-copyright commentators from within the content industry argue either that Creative Commons is not useful, or that it undermines copyright.<ref>[http://www.digitalmusicnews.com/stories/012209ascap ASCAP Targets "Copyleft / Free Culture" Enemy...</ref> <ref>10 Things Every Music Creator Should Know About Creative Commons Licensing </ref>

Some within the copyleft movement argue that only the Attribution-ShareAlike license is actually a true copyleft license <ref>[3]</ref> and that there is no standard of freedom between Creative Commons licenses (as there is, for example, within the free software and open source movements). <ref>Benjamin Mako Hill, Towards a Standard of Freedom</ref> An effort within the movement to define a standard of freedom has resulted in the Definition of Free Cultural Works.<ref>[Definition of Free Cultural Works http://freedomdefined.org/]</ref> In February 2008, Creative Commons recognized the definition and added an "Approved for Free Cultural Works" badge to its two Creative Commons licenses which comply -- Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike. <ref>Approved for Free Cultural Works </ref>

See also


References

External links