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Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.<ref>(Creative Commons FAQ)</ref> The organization has released several copyright licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators.
Aim and influence
Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, dubbed "some rights reserved."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that Creative Commons has provided "institutional, practical and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely".<ref>Berry & Moss 2005</ref>
Creative Commons works to counter what the organization considers to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture. According to Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, it is "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past".<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Creative Commons governance
The current Creative Commons Board includes: Hal Abelson, James Boyle (Chair), Michael W. Carroll, Davis Guggenheim, Joi Ito, Lawrence Lessig, Laurie Racine, Eric Saltzman, Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Jimmy Wales, and Esther Wojcicki.<ref name="autogenerated1">People - Creative Commons</ref>
Technical Advisory Board
The Technical Advisory Board includes five members: Hal Abelson, Ben Adida, Barbara Fox, Don McGovern and Eric Miller. Hal Abelson also serves on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
Creative Commons also has an Audit Committee, with two members: Molly Shaffer Van Houweling and Lawrence Lessig. Both serve on the Creative Commons Board.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
Types of Creative Commons Licenses
Creative Commons licenses contain four major permissions:
- Attribution (by) requires users to attribute a work's original author. All Creative Commons licenses contain this option, but some now-deprecated licenses did not contain this component.
- Authors can either not restrict modification, or use Share-alike (sa), which is a copyleft requirement that requires that any derived works be licensed under the same license, or No derivatives (nd), which requires that the work not be modified.
- Non-commercial (nc) requires that the work not be used for commercial purposes.
As of the current versions, all Creative Commons licenses allow the "core right" to redistribute a work for non-commercial purposes without modification. The Non-commercial and No derivatives options will make a work non-free.
Legal test case
A Creative Commons license was first tested in court in early 2006, when podcaster Adam Curry sued a Dutch tabloid who published photos without permission from his Flickr page. The photos were licensed under the Creative Commons Non-Commercial license. While the verdict was in favour of Curry, the tabloid avoided having to pay restitution to him as long as they did not repeat the offense. An analysis of the decision states, "The Dutch Court’s decision is especially noteworthy because it confirms that the conditions of a Creative Commons license automatically apply to the content licensed under it, and bind users of such content even without expressly agreeing to, or having knowledge of, the conditions of the license."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Creative Commons International
The original non-localized Creative Commons licenses were written with the U.S. legal system in mind, so the wording could be incompatible within different local legislations and render the licenses unenforceable in various jurisdictions. To address this issue, Creative Commons International has started to port the various licenses to accommodate local copyright and private law. As of December 2008, there are 50 jurisdiction-specific licenses, with 8 other jurisdictions in drafting process, and more countries joining the worldwide project.<ref>project</ref>
Usage of Creative Commons licenses
Creative Commons is maintaining a content directory wiki of organizations and projects using Creative Commons licenses.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> On its website CC also provides case studies of projects using CC licenses across the world.<ref>Creative Commons Case Studies</ref> CC licensed content can also be accessed through a number of content directories and search engines (see CC licensed content directories).
On January 13, 2009, some broadcasting content from Al Jazeera on the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict was released as creative commons.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Matteo Pasquinelli (2008) describes two fronts of criticism: "those who claim the institution of a real commonality against Creative Commons restrictions (non-commercial, share-alike, etc.) and those who point out Creative Commons complicity with global capitalism". Pasquinelli specifically criticises Creative Commons for not establishing "productive commons".<ref>Pasquinelli, Matteo. "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons", Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008</ref>
Critics have also argued that Creative Commons worsens license proliferation, by providing multiple licenses that are incompatible.<ref></ref> Most notably 'attribution-sharealike' and 'attribution-noncommercial-sharealike' are incompatible, meaning that works under these licenses cannot be combined in a derivative work without obtaining permission from the license-holder.<ref></ref><ref></ref> Pro-copyright commentators from within the content industry argue either that Creative Commons is not useful, or that it undermines copyright.<ref>[http://www.digitalmusicnews.com/stories/012209ascap ASCAP Targets "Copyleft / Free Culture" Enemy...</ref> <ref>10 Things Every Music Creator Should Know About Creative Commons Licensing </ref>
Some within the copyleft movement argue that only the Attribution-ShareAlike license is actually a true copyleft license <ref></ref> and that there is no standard of freedom between Creative Commons licenses (as there is, for example, within the free software and open source movements). <ref>Benjamin Mako Hill, Towards a Standard of Freedom</ref> An effort within the movement to define a standard of freedom has resulted in the Definition of Free Cultural Works.<ref>[Definition of Free Cultural Works http://freedomdefined.org/]</ref> In February 2008, Creative Commons recognized the definition and added an "Approved for Free Cultural Works" badge to its two Creative Commons licenses which comply -- Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike. <ref>Approved for Free Cultural Works </ref>
- Creative Commons licenses
- Digital freedom
- Free content
- Free software
- Gratis versus libre
- List of works available under a Creative Commons License
- Open content
- Open source
- Public domain
- Science Commons
- Category:Commons resources
- Ardito, Stephanie C. "Public-Domain Advocacy Flourishes." Information Today 20, no. 7 (2003): 17,19.
- Asschenfeldt, Christiane. "Copyright and Licensing Issues—The International Commons." In CERN Workshop Series on Innovations in Scholarly Communication: Implementing the Benefits of OAI (OAI3), 12 February-14 February 2004 at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva: CERN, 2004. (video)
- Brown, Glenn Otis. "Academic Digital Rights: A Walk on the Creative Commons." Syllabus Magazine (April 2003).
- ———. "Out of the Way: How the Next Copyright Revolution Can Help the Next Scientific Revolution." PLoS Biology 1, no. 1 (2003): 30-31.
- Chillingworth, Mark. "Creative Commons Attracts BBC's Attention." Information World Review, 11 June 2004.
- Conhaim, Wallys W. "Creative Commons Nurtures the Public Domain." Information Today 19, no. 7 (2002): 52, 54.
- "Delivering Classics Resources with TEI-XML, Open Source, and Creative Commons Licenses." Cover Pages, 28 April 2004.
- Denison, D.C. "For Creators, An Argument for Alienable Rights." Boston Globe, 22 December 2002, E2.
- Ermert, Monika. "Germany Debuts Creative Commons." The Register, 15 June 2004.
- Fitzgerald, Brian, and Ian Oi. "Free Culture: Cultivating the Creative Commons." (2004).
- Johnstone, Sally M. "Sharing Educational Materials Without Losing Rights." Change 35, no. 6 (2003): 49-51.
- Pasquinelli, Matteo. "Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons", Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-90-5662-663-1
- Plotkin, Hal. "All Hail Creative Commons: Stanford Professor and Author Lawrence Lessig Plans a Legal Insurrection." SFGate.com, 11 February 2002.
- Schloman, Barbara F. "Creative Commons: An Opportunity to Extend the Public Domain." Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13 October 2003.
- Stix, Gary. "Some Rights Reserved." Scientific American 288, no. 3 (2003): 46.
- Weitzman, Jonathan B., and Lawrence Lessig. "Open Access and Creative Common Sense." Open Access Now, 10 May 2004.